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## Tuesday, 25 August 2020

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Notes-1

1. (a) Transform the following into Disjunctive Normal Form (DNF) :
(P→(~(Q→R)))
(b) What will be the output of the function given below, when a list L is passed as an argument say, L= (a b c d ).Write the intermediate results of each step, while calculating the result.
(defun TRY (L)
(cond
( (null L) O)
(t (+1(TRY(cdr L) ) ) )
)
)
)
)

(c) Represent the following sentence as a conceptual graph "cow has four legs and eats grass".
(d) Write a recursive program in PROLOG, to find factorial of a number.
(e) Transform the following formula to Prenex Normal form :

(f) Briefly Discuss, the Chinese Room Test along with its significance
(g) Convert the following WFF in to a set of clauses :

(h) How Agents are different from Intelligent Agents ? Briefly discuss the role and utility of Agents in Artificial Intelligence.

2. (a) How is inferencing used in deriving conclusions from the facts ? Differentiate between forward chaining and Backward chaining. On what factors does the decision to choose forward or backward chaining depend ?
(b) Enumerate the Various Knowledge representation schemes. Give brief description of each scheme. Identify advantages of representation scheme over the other.

3. (a) Write short notes on the following :
(i) Mean-End Analysis
(ii) A* Algorithm
(b) Briefly describe the And-OR graph. How does it contribute to search and control strategy of an expert system ?
(c) Explain any two of the following logic concepts, using suitable examples :
(i) Modus ponens
(ii) Valid statement
(iii) Unification principle in proposition logic

4. (a) Briefly discuss Data types and structures in Prolog.
(b) Briefly discuss "Closed World Assumption systems" as a mechanism of handling in completeness of a knowledge base.
(c) What is the Turing Test ? If the machine passes the Turing Test, does it mean that the system is intelligent ? What are the associated problems with Turing Test ? What are required improvement / advances to over come these problems ?

5. (a) Compare and Contrast the following fair of terms :
(i) Monotonic and Non-Monotonic Reasoning
(ii) Predicate and Propositional logic
(iii) Frames and Scripts
(iv) DFS and Heuristic Search
(v) BFS and D-Search
(b) Write BFS algorithm and use it, to search the Goal node G in the tree given below :

Notes-2

1. (a) Transform the following into Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF) :
~(C → D) ∨ (C ∧ D)
(b) Determine the output on execution of the function given below, when n = 5. Write the intermediate results of each step while calculating the result also.
(defun func (n)
(cond ((zerop n) -1)
(t
(*( -0 n)
func ( -n 1)))
)))
(c) Give conceptual dependency representation of the sentence given as follows :
"Mohan will eat Dosa from the plate with fork and knife"
(d) With the help of a suitable example, describe the "member" function of PROLOG. How
the same can be used to perform recursive search of a data in a list ?
(e) Transform the following formula into Prenex Normal form.

(f) Briefly discuss, the "Turing Test" along with its significance.
(g) Transform the following conceptual graph into FOPL statement :
[ PERSON : Anita ]←(AGENT)←[DRINK]
→(OBJECT)→[FOOD : MILK]
↓
↑
(Instrument Glass)
(h) What are Agents ? Briefly discuss the properties of agents.

2. (a) Discuss Truth Maintainence System (TMS),with the help of a suitable diagram.
(b) Under what conditions would it make sense to use both forward and backward chaining ? Give an example where both of these are used.
(c) Explain the term "Knowledge" with respect to a Knowledge Base System. How "Knowledge" differs from "Intelligence" ? Distinguish between procedural and declarative knowledge, while citing an example for each.

3. (a) Write short notes on the following :
(i) AO* Algorithm
(ii) Reasoning techniques and its types
(b) Explain any two of the following logic concepts, using suitable examples :
(i) Modus Tollens
(ii) Satisfiable statement
(iii) Resolution principle in proposition logic
(c) Machines can be made intelligent artificially but ultimately persons make the machines.So, who is more intelligent - the artificial machine or the person ? Justify your answer.

4. (a) Briefly discuss Data Structures and Data Values in LISP.
(b) Briefly discuss "Default Reasoning Systems" as a mechanism of handling incompleteness of a Knowledge Base.
(c) What is an Expert System ? Explain the architecture of Expert System. Create an Expert System to infer whether a student has secured excellent, good, average or poor marks in his/her exams.

5. (a) Compare and contrast precisely the following pair of terms :
(i) BFS and Heuristic Search
(ii) Conceptual graph and Conceptual Dependency
(iii) Associative Network and Semantic Network
(iv) Abductive inference and Analogical inference
(v) Knowledge and information

Notes-3

1. (a) What is Turing test ? What are the objections to the Turing test ?
(b) If the propositions are as follows :
P : He needs a doctor S : He is sick
Q : He needs a lawyer U : He is injured
R : He has an accident
Represent the following formulae in English :
(i) (S → P) ∧ (R → Q)
(ii) P → (S ∨ U)
(c) What are Agents in A.I. ? Briefly discuss the properties possessed by Agents.
(d) Develop the knowledge base in PROLOG,to identify the following relations :
(i) BROTHER

(ii) GRANDFATHER
(e) Verify whether the knowledge base given below is complete or not :
(i) P(a)
(ii) P(b)
(iii) P(a) → Q(a)
(f) Determine whether each of the following sentences are satisfactory, contradictory or valid :
(i) ∼(∼ A → B)
(ii) G : ((A → B) ∧ (A ∨ ∼B))
(g) Translate the following statements into clausal form :
Al : if X is on top of Y, Y supports X.
A2 : if X is above Y, and they are touching each other, X is on top of Y.
A3 : A cup is above a book.
A4 : A cup is touching a book.
(h) Briefly discuss the 'Script' as a knowledge representation technique.

2. (a) Skolomize the following :

(b) Transform the following FOPL formula to Prenex Normal Form :

(c) Use Resolution method to solve the following logic problem :
(i) Some patients like all doctors.
(ii) No patient likes any quake.
(iii) Therefore, no doctor is quake.

3. (a) Use Resolution Refutation mechanism to deduce "GOD IS LOVED BY EVERYONE",the knowledge given to the system is as follows :
(i) Assume God is loved by everyone who loves someone.
(ii) Also assume that no one loves nobody.
(b) Explain how the PROLOG system may respond to the following query :
(i) ? — member (pascal, [prolog, fortran,cobol])
(ii) ? — member (X, [X |-]) : -!
(iii) ? — member (X, [-| Y ]) : - member (X, Y)
(c) Define your own function LEN in LISP that returns the number of top-most elements in a given list say L.

4. (a) Briefly discuss the CUT and FAIL mechanism used in PROLOG. Use the CUT mechanism to write a program to find the factorial of a number.
(b) What are Rule based systems ? Briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of rule based systems.
(c) How does Knowledge acquisition subsystem differ from Explanation subsystem ? Give example of each category of subsystem.

5. (a) What are Closed World Assumptions ? What is the requirement of having such assumptions ?
(b) Write the propositional syntax of the following inference rules :
(i) Syllogism
(ii) Dilemma
(iii) Modus Ponens
(c) Briefly mention some characteristics of any two of the following :
(i) MYCIN
(ii) COMPASS
(iii) EMYCIN

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